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•    math.h is a header file in the standard library of the C programming language designed for basic mathematical operations. Most of the functions involve the use of floating point numbers. C++ also implements these functions for compatibility reasons and declares them in the header cmath (the C99 functions are not available in the current C++ standard, C++ 98).

•    Mathematical library functions that operate on integers, such as abs, labs, div, and ldiv, are instead specified in the stdlib.h header.
•    Mathematical constants (not standard)

Name    Description
M_E                  The base of natural logarithms.
M_LOG2E        The logarithm to base 2 of M_E.
M_LOG10E      The logarithm to base 10 of M_E.
M_LN2             The natural logarithm of 2.
M_LN10         The natural logarithm of 10.
M_PI    Pi, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.
M_PI_2    Pi divided by two.
M_PI_4    Pi divided by four.
M_1_PI    The reciprocal of pi (1/pi).
M_2_PI    Two times the reciprocal of pi.
M_2_SQRTPI    Two times the reciprocal of the square root of pi.
M_SQRT2    The square root of two.
M_SQRT1_2    The reciprocal of the square root of two (also the square root of 1/2).
•    All values are of type double. As an extension, the GNU C library also defines these constants with type long double. The long double macros have a lowercase ‘l’ appended to their names: M_El, M_PIl, and so forth. These are only available if _GNU_SOURCE is defined.

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